Tag Archives: climate change

Revealing the transformative potential: Article 6 of Paris Agreement

Article 6 of the Paris Agreement pertains to the cooperation between Parties in the implementation of the Agreement. It includes provisions for the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes (ITMOs) towards achieving nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and the creation of a mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development. It also establishes a framework for cooperation on, and facilitation of, capacity-building, and transparency of action and support. This Article is one of the key mechanisms to achieve the goal of the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial level and pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Countries with potential to help fellow countries as per Article 6 of the Paris agreement

The Paris Agreement, a historic pact signed by nearly 200 countries, emphasizes the importance of international cooperation in tackling this global crisis. Under Article 6, countries are urged to collaborate and support each other in reaching their climate targets.

In the below context, I am trying to drill down the nations that hold the potential to be instrumental in helping other countries reduce their carbon footprint and create a greener tomorrow. Whether through investments in sustainable energy sources, the development and export of low-carbon technologies, or the reduction of dependence on fossil fuels, these nations are poised to make a significant impact in our fight against climate change.

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Unveiling climate models for predicting the Earth’s grim future

Dear readers, this article expects you to have reasonable understanding of climate and environment as the topic is quite advanced in its nature. Let us delve into the realm of Climate Models, a crucial aspect in comprehending and forecasting the alterations of our beloved planet, Earth’s climate. These models, like a symphony, simulate the interplay between the atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice. They serve as seers, predicting the future changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level and other climate variables.

The Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) offer a glimpse into the future, portraying the potential greenhouse gas emissions and their impact on our climate. The results obtained from diverse climate models, through the lens of RCP scenarios, paint a consistent picture of warming, primarily caused by human actions. Though the projections may carry some degree of uncertainty, the overall trend aligns with observational data and the historical records of our planet’s climate.

There are many different models that have been developed to simulate and understand the Earth’s climate. These models are used to project future changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and other climate variables based on different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions. Let’s look at some of the models first:

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The non-climatic benefits of fighting against climate change

Climate change is not just an environmental concern, but a multifaceted issue that has the potential to impact various spheres of human life. However, what many don’t realize is that addressing climate change can also have several co-benefits that can help to solve other non-climate related problems.

For instance, transitioning to clean energy sources such as wind and solar power can not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also air and water pollution. This, in turn, can lead to improved public health and reduced healthcare costs. Moreover, investing in renewable energy sources can reduce dependence on fossil fuels, thereby increasing energy security and reducing the risk of price fluctuations and supply disruptions.

Also socio-cultural benefits such as building resilient communities, protecting cultural heritage, raising awareness and education, promoting social cohesion, preserving traditional knowledge, and preserving cultural identity can also be factored. Involving and engaging communities in addressing climate change and considering the cultural and social dimensions of climate change is crucial for creating a sustainable and equitable future for all.

Another important aspect is job creation. Transitioning to a low-carbon economy can open up new opportunities in industries such as renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable transportation. Additionally, reducing greenhouse gas emissions can also help to reduce deforestation, habitat destruction, and other activities that contribute to the loss of biodiversity.

Specific use-cases demonstrating non-climatic benefits

I am targeting in this article to highlight various ways in which investment in sustainable practices and technologies can lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and improvements in public health. From China’s investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency, to Copenhagen’s investment in cycling infrastructure and Singapore’s comprehensive water management program, each example demonstrates the positive impact that sustainable practices can have on both the environment and public health.

Additionally, many of the below examples will show the economic benefits of these sustainable practices, including cost savings on healthcare and energy consumption. The article emphasizes the potential for cities and states to make a meaningful impact on the environment and public health through strategic investment in sustainable practices.

LocationStudy Conducted byInitiativeReduction in Greenhouse Gas EmissionsImprovement in Other Area
Barcelona, SpainCity of BarcelonaComprehensive green roof program10%Decrease in incidence of heat-related illness
Bogotรก, ColombiaCity GovernmentImplementation of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system20% reduction in transportation emissionsImproved mobility for residents (increase in access to jobs, education and services)
CaliforniaCalifornia Air Resources BoardDeployment of solar power20%6,000 premature deaths avoided and $4.4 billion in health care cost savings. Improved air quality and reduced incidence of respiratory illness
CaliforniaCalifornia Department of TransportationPromotion of green transportation options10%Improved public health, decrease in obesity, heart disease and diabetes
ChinaTsinghua UniversityRenewable energy and energy efficiencyN/A4.3% reduction in PM2.5 (64,800 premature deaths avoided)
ColoradoColorado Energy OfficePromotion of clean energy25%Improved public health, decrease in air pollution and respiratory illness
Copenhagen, DenmarkCity GovernmentInvestment in cycling infrastructure22% reduction in transportation emissionsImproved public health (decrease in cardiovascular disease and obesity)
Copenhagen, DenmarkCity of CopenhagenComprehensive bike-sharing program, and Implementation of urban greening program10% – 15%Reduced incidence of obesity, heart disease, and stroke. Overall Improved public health, decrease in stress and mental health issues
Curitiba, BrazilCity of CuritibaComprehensive public transportation program20%Reduced incidence of obesity, heart disease, and stroke
Curitiba, BrazilCuritiba Municipal GovernmentComprehensive waste management system30%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness and diarrhea
Delhi, IndiaIndian Institute of TechnologyWaste Management and Recycling25% reduction in methane emissions from landfillsImproved sanitation and reduced risk of water pollution
Frankfurt, GermanyCity of FrankfurtComprehensive green building program30%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness, asthma, and allergies
Gujarat, IndiaGujarat Energy Development AgencyPromotion of solar energy20%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness
Jaipur, IndiaTERI (The Energy and Resources Institute)Solar Power Generation30% reduction in CO2 emissions from power generationImproved public health and reduced health care costs due to decrease in air pollution
London, UKGreater London AuthorityComprehensive green infrastructure program15%Reduced incidence of stress and mental health issues
London, United KingdomTransport for LondonComprehensive public transportation system20%Decrease in incidence of physical inactivity and obesity
MaineMaine Department of Marine ResourcesPromotion of sustainable fishing practices15%Decrease in incidence of mercury and other heavy metal exposure
Malmรถ, SwedenCity of MalmรถUrban greening program5%Reduced incidence of stress and mental health issues
MichiganMichigan Department of TransportationPromotion of sustainable transportation20%Improved public health, decrease in obesity, heart disease and diabetes
MinnesotaMinnesota Department of AgriculturePromotion of sustainable agriculture20%Decrease in incidence of pesticide exposure and other environmental health issues
Mumbai, IndiaCenter for Science and EnvironmentTransition to Electric Vehicles35% reduction in CO2 emissions from transportation sector50% reduction in air pollution-related deaths by 2030
New YorkNew York State Energy Research and Development AuthorityPromotion of energy efficiency25%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness, asthma, and allergies
OregonOregon Department of Environmental QualityConservation of wetlands0.5 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent per yearImproved water quality (decrease in the frequency of harmful algal blooms)
OregonOregon Department of ForestryPromotion of sustainable forestry15%Improved public health, decrease in air pollution and respiratory illness
OregonOregon Department of TransportationPromotion of sustainable transportation10%Decrease in incidence of obesity and heart disease
Rio de Janeiro, BrazilMunicipal Secretariat of Environment and Sustainability of Rio de JaneiroComprehensive solid waste management program15%Decrease in incidence of vector-borne diseases and other health issues related to poor sanitation
Seoul, South KoreaSeoul Metropolitan GovernmentComprehensive green city program30%Decrease in incidence of heat-related illness and other health issues related to urbanization
SingaporeBuilding and Construction Authority of SingaporeComprehensive green building program20%Improved public health, decrease in indoor air pollution and respiratory illness
SingaporePublic Utilities Board of SingaporeComprehensive water management program20%Reduced incidence of water-borne diseases
Sydney, AustraliaSydney Water CorporationComprehensive water conservation program15%Reduced incidence of water-borne diseases
TexasTexas Public Utility CommissionPromotion of wind energy15%Improved air quality and reduced incidence of respiratory illness
Toronto, CanadaCity of TorontoComprehensive green space program15%Decrease in incidence of stress and mental health issues
Toronto, CanadaCity of TorontoImplementation of green roof program10%Improved public health, decrease in heat-related illness and other health issues related to urbanization
Toronto, CanadaCity of TorontoTree planting program20%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness, asthma, and allergies
UKEnergy Saving TrustInstallation of energy-efficient measures in low-income households20% reduction in energy consumptionImproved health outcomes (reduction in respiratory symptoms, asthma, and allergies)
Vancouver, CanadaCity of VancouverImplementation of green infrastructure program20%Reduced incidence of respiratory illness, asthma, and allergies, Improved public health, decrease in heat-related illness and other health issues related to urbanization
Vermont, USAVermont Sustainable Jobs FundPromotion of local food systems20%Reduced incidence of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease

The shift towards a more sustainable future is essential for addressing the pressing global issues of climate change, energy security, and resource depletion. A comprehensive approach that incorporates a variety of sustainable practices across different sectors can help to mitigate these challenges and promote economic development, social well-being, and environmental protection.

From renewable energy sources, sustainable land use practices, sustainable transportation options, energy efficient buildings, sustainable water management, sustainable waste management, sustainable urban planning, sustainable tourism, sustainable forestry and fisheries practices, green infrastructure, sustainable agriculture practices, sustainable urban development, green financing mechanisms, and reforestation projects, there are many ways to create a more sustainable future. Implementing these practices can lead to improved energy security, food security, public health outcomes, economic productivity, and resilience to extreme weather events.

Furthermore, investing in sustainable practices can create jobs and stimulate economic growth, lower energy costs, reduce poverty and improve economic competitiveness, improve air quality and reduce noise pollution, protect property and infrastructure, and protect habitats and biodiversity.


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Scientific Papers and Citations for Human-caused Climate Change

Climate change is a complex issue that affects us all, and it is important to consider all perspectives and viewpoints. If you are skeptical about the scientific evidence, I would encourage you to take a look at the peer-reviewed research papers and documents that I have provided in this article. These studies, conducted by reputable scientists and published in respected journals, provide a solid foundation of scientific evidence that supports the reality of human-caused climate change.

Politics or no-politics, the importance are factual datasets and research, and the intent is not to blindly believe what IPCC says, however, the information they spread should give each individual enough points to dive in and research themselves. Although, the reports that IPCC publishes are widely accepted in the scientific community as they are based on solid scientific evidence.

It’s also important to acknowledge that there may be different opinions and views on climate change and it’s impacts, but it is essential to base our understanding and actions on robust scientific evidence, rather than opinions or emotions. I invite you to review the facts and evidence presented here, and to consider the potential consequences if we fail to take action to address climate change.

Note: read with open and clear mind

1. Skepticism often centers around hidden agendas that have emerged in recent years, thus, the citations provided here are from papers and journals dating back from 1980s.
2. The external link may be broken, if so, copy and paste the title and information on Google to find the correct link.
3. Feel free to ask for clarification or raise doubts in the comments.
4. If you wish to add any other notable names, please share the name, paper/citation link, and award/recognition information.
5. If you disagree with the scientists’ publications, provide your basis and relevant links in the comments.
6. Use respectful language when commenting.
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The LEFT and RIGHT (Skeptical view) debate on climate change

The debate on climate change can often be divided into two main camps: those on the “left” and those on the “right.”

People who are considered “left-leaning” (Also termed as Skeptical viewpoint) generally think that climate change is a big problem that needs to be dealt with right away. They usually support ideas like setting a price on carbon and making rules to limit the amount of greenhouse gases that are released. A lot of people on the left also believe that doing something about climate change is the right thing to do morally and ethically, and that countries that have been releasing a lot of greenhouse gases for a long time have a special responsibility to take action.

People who are considered “right-leaning” usually do not believe that climate change is as big of a problem and that it needs any immediate action. They may say that we do not have enough information to be sure that climate change is happening or that it is caused by human activity, or that it would be too expensive to do something about it. Some people on the right may also believe that people should be free to make their own choices and that economic growth is more important than protecting the environment.

It’s important to remember that not everyone who is considered “left” or “right” feels the same way about climate change. There are many different opinions on this topic and some people may not fit into one of these two groups or might hold a more nuanced position. Also, “left” and “right” can mean different things in different countries and situations.

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Startup companies contributing to climate change mitigation

There are a number of startups out there that are tackling climate change head on. These companies come from different industries and are using a variety of methods to cut down on greenhouse gases and lessen the effects of climate change. This article showcases some of these innovative firms and their efforts to protect our planet. Please note, its just a small list and I do not have sponsorship from any one of them ๐Ÿ™‚

One company has developed a technology that captures and sequesters CO2 from industrial processes and uses it to make concrete stronger and more durable. Another company specializes in developing and operating facilities that convert waste into clean energy. There is a company that manufactures inverters and other technologies that help optimize the performance of solar energy systems. There is also a company that provides electric vehicle charging infrastructure and related services. Another company has developed a technology that captures CO2 from industrial emissions and uses it to produce chemicals and fuels.

So the idea is to share a small sample of many startup companies that are focused on developing and commercializing innovative technologies and services that directly or indirectly help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

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Why poor experience the most severe effects of climate change?

Climate change affects everyone, but it disproportionately impacts vulnerable and marginalized communities, including the poor. These communities often have fewer resources and less political power to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

For example, in a coastal community where fishing is a major source of income, rising sea levels and more frequent storms may make it more difficult for fishermen to go out to sea, leading to a loss of income. Without the financial means to adapt, such as by investing in more durable boats or finding alternative sources of income, these individuals and their families may be at risk of poverty and food insecurity.

According to a report by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), between 1995 and 2015, more than 95% of all deaths caused by natural disasters occurred in developing countries. During this period, more than 1.3 million people died as a result of natural disasters, and more than 4.4 billion people were affected.

It is difficult to determine the exact percentage of people living in poverty worldwide, as definitions of poverty and methods of measuring it vary across countries and regions. However, according to the World Bank, as of 2021, about 9.2% of the global population, or about 689 million people, lived in extreme poverty, defined as living on less than $1.90 per day. This represents a significant reduction from 1990, when more than 35% of the global population lived in extreme poverty.

It is important to address the needs and concerns of poor communities in the context of climate change and to ensure that they have the resources and support they need to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of a changing climate.

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Why child birth control is often talked with Climate Change?

These days, it is not uncommon for people to talk about this or to show the concerns about child birth control in the face of climate change and other environmental challenges. People may simply be uncertain about what the future will hold and this has become a reason for them to be hesitant to bring the children into a world that is facing such significant challenges.

Now many people don’t think like this, and the black-and-white reason could be that few people are too sensitive about the climate change, whereas few aren’t. In this article, I will try to understand and help bring my perspectives on why people would be thinking that way.

A word of caution

This article is written from my own individual perspective and have psychological, geographical, conceptual, and overall belief that I possess. The article is quite lengthy, as there were many elements that I couldn’t resist to write about. Please read at your own wisdom.

There are several reasons why some people may be hesitant to have children due to environmental concerns. Fear of environmental degradation is one such reason. Climate change and other environmental problems can harm human health and well-being. Some people may worry that their child will face a difficult future due to environmental challenges.

Another reason is fear of resource depletion. People may be concerned about the availability of resources such as food, water, and energy in the future and how having a child may impact these resources. Also, there is the fear of overpopulation. Population growth can put pressure on the environment and natural resources. Some people may be hesitant to have children out of concern for the impact their family may have on the planet.

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Real life scenarios of drones helping in disaster response

Drones have proven to be a valuable tool in disaster response in recent years. They can be used to quickly and efficiently survey areas affected by disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, providing detailed information about the extent of the damage and the location of people in need of assistance. Drones equipped with cameras and other sensors can capture high-resolution images and other data that can be used to assess the damage and plan response and recovery efforts.

In addition, drones can be used to deliver supplies, such as food, water, and medical supplies, to isolated or hard-to-reach areas. They can also be used to search for survivors and provide real-time situational awareness to responders on the ground. Overall, drones have proven to be a valuable asset in disaster response efforts, helping to save lives and reduce the impact of disasters on communities.

There are many things that drones can do for responding efficiently in the case of disaster. This article will capture few of those important activities that can strengthen the disaster response using drones:

Use Case: Mapping

After a disaster strikes, drones can be a valuable tool for emergency responders. They can be used to create detailed maps of the affected areas, highlighting important resources such as hospitals and shelters, as well as evacuation routes. These maps can help responders navigate the chaos and plan for recovery efforts, as well as identify bottlenecks and optimize evacuation efforts.

Drones can also be used to map the distribution of debris, helping responders prioritize clean-up efforts and assess the risk of further damage. In this way, drones provide a bird’s-eye view that can help responders make informed decisions and respond effectively to the crisis at hand.

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Python code to assess carbon contribution on surface temperature

To calculate the contribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the current surface temperature of the Earth, we will need to use a combination of physical principles and data on atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. In this article we will try and understand the basics of calculating the carbon concentration affecting the surface temperature using Python programming. But, before let’s do a general outline of the steps we can follow:

  1. Determine the current atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. We can find this information from various sources, including scientific papers, government agencies, and online databases.
  2. Calculate the global mean surface temperature of the Earth. This can be done by using temperature data from a large number of locations around the globe and averaging them.
  3. Determine the amount of energy being absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere from the sun. This can be calculated using the solar constant, which is the amount of solar energy received by the Earth per unit area per unit time, and the Earth’s albedo, which is the fraction of solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.
  4. Calculate the amount of energy being emitted by the Earth back into space. This can be done using the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which states that the rate at which a blackbody (such as the Earth) emits energy is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature.
  5. Calculate the difference between the energy absorbed by the Earth and the energy emitted back into space. This will give us the net energy balance of the Earth, which is the excess energy that is trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  6. Determine the contribution of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the net energy balance. This can be done by using the absorption and emission spectra of these gases, which describe how they absorb and emit energy at different wavelengths. We can then calculate the amount of energy absorbed and emitted by each gas and add them up to determine the total contribution of all the gases.
  7. Calculate the warming effect of the gases by comparing the net energy balance with and without the contribution of the gases. The difference between the two will give us the warming effect of the gases.

This is a simplified version of the process that scientists use to calculate the warming effect of greenhouse gases. In practice, the calculations are more complex and may involve using advanced computer models and data from a wide range of sources.

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