All posts by Abhilash Shukla

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Why poor experience the most severe effects of climate change?

Climate change affects everyone, but it disproportionately impacts vulnerable and marginalized communities, including the poor. These communities often have fewer resources and less political power to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

For example, in a coastal community where fishing is a major source of income, rising sea levels and more frequent storms may make it more difficult for fishermen to go out to sea, leading to a loss of income. Without the financial means to adapt, such as by investing in more durable boats or finding alternative sources of income, these individuals and their families may be at risk of poverty and food insecurity.

According to a report by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), between 1995 and 2015, more than 95% of all deaths caused by natural disasters occurred in developing countries. During this period, more than 1.3 million people died as a result of natural disasters, and more than 4.4 billion people were affected.

It is difficult to determine the exact percentage of people living in poverty worldwide, as definitions of poverty and methods of measuring it vary across countries and regions. However, according to the World Bank, as of 2021, about 9.2% of the global population, or about 689 million people, lived in extreme poverty, defined as living on less than $1.90 per day. This represents a significant reduction from 1990, when more than 35% of the global population lived in extreme poverty.

It is important to address the needs and concerns of poor communities in the context of climate change and to ensure that they have the resources and support they need to adapt to and mitigate the impacts of a changing climate.

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Why child birth control is often talked with Climate Change?

These days, it is not uncommon for people to talk about this or to show the concerns about child birth control in the face of climate change and other environmental challenges. People may simply be uncertain about what the future will hold and this has become a reason for them to be hesitant to bring the children into a world that is facing such significant challenges.

Now many people don’t think like this, and the black-and-white reason could be that few people are too sensitive about the climate change, whereas few aren’t. In this article, I will try to understand and help bring my perspectives on why people would be thinking that way.

A word of caution

This article is written from my own individual perspective and have psychological, geographical, conceptual, and overall belief that I possess. The article is quite lengthy, as there were many elements that I couldn’t resist to write about. Please read at your own wisdom.

There are several reasons why some people may be hesitant to have children due to environmental concerns. Fear of environmental degradation is one such reason. Climate change and other environmental problems can harm human health and well-being. Some people may worry that their child will face a difficult future due to environmental challenges.

Another reason is fear of resource depletion. People may be concerned about the availability of resources such as food, water, and energy in the future and how having a child may impact these resources. Also, there is the fear of overpopulation. Population growth can put pressure on the environment and natural resources. Some people may be hesitant to have children out of concern for the impact their family may have on the planet.

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Solving 5 mathematical Conjecture puzzles with Python code

There are many complex math puzzles that have stumped mathematicians and puzzle enthusiasts alike. Here are 5 mathematical conjecture puzzles that I have attempted to explain and solve using Python:

The Collatz Conjecture

The Collatz conjecture is a mathematical problem that involves a sequence of positive integers that are generated according to a specific rule. The conjecture states that for any positive integer, the sequence will eventually reach the number 1, regardless of the starting number.

Here is a simple Python function that generates the Collatz sequence for a given starting number:

def collatz(n):
    while n != 1:
        print(n, end=", ")
        if n % 2 == 0:
            n = n // 2
            n = 3*n + 1

To use this function, you would simply call it with a positive integer as the argument, like this:


This would output the following sequence:

10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1

The conjecture has been verified for many starting numbers, but it has not been proven for all positive integers. Despite much effort, a general proof or counterexample has not yet been found.

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Real life scenarios of drones helping in disaster response

Drones have proven to be a valuable tool in disaster response in recent years. They can be used to quickly and efficiently survey areas affected by disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and wildfires, providing detailed information about the extent of the damage and the location of people in need of assistance. Drones equipped with cameras and other sensors can capture high-resolution images and other data that can be used to assess the damage and plan response and recovery efforts.

In addition, drones can be used to deliver supplies, such as food, water, and medical supplies, to isolated or hard-to-reach areas. They can also be used to search for survivors and provide real-time situational awareness to responders on the ground. Overall, drones have proven to be a valuable asset in disaster response efforts, helping to save lives and reduce the impact of disasters on communities.

There are many things that drones can do for responding efficiently in the case of disaster. This article will capture few of those important activities that can strengthen the disaster response using drones:

Use Case: Mapping

After a disaster strikes, drones can be a valuable tool for emergency responders. They can be used to create detailed maps of the affected areas, highlighting important resources such as hospitals and shelters, as well as evacuation routes. These maps can help responders navigate the chaos and plan for recovery efforts, as well as identify bottlenecks and optimize evacuation efforts.

Drones can also be used to map the distribution of debris, helping responders prioritize clean-up efforts and assess the risk of further damage. In this way, drones provide a bird’s-eye view that can help responders make informed decisions and respond effectively to the crisis at hand.

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Python code to assess carbon contribution on surface temperature

To calculate the contribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the current surface temperature of the Earth, we will need to use a combination of physical principles and data on atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. In this article we will try and understand the basics of calculating the carbon concentration affecting the surface temperature using Python programming. But, before let’s do a general outline of the steps we can follow:

  1. Determine the current atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. We can find this information from various sources, including scientific papers, government agencies, and online databases.
  2. Calculate the global mean surface temperature of the Earth. This can be done by using temperature data from a large number of locations around the globe and averaging them.
  3. Determine the amount of energy being absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere from the sun. This can be calculated using the solar constant, which is the amount of solar energy received by the Earth per unit area per unit time, and the Earth’s albedo, which is the fraction of solar energy reflected by the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.
  4. Calculate the amount of energy being emitted by the Earth back into space. This can be done using the Stefan-Boltzmann law, which states that the rate at which a blackbody (such as the Earth) emits energy is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature.
  5. Calculate the difference between the energy absorbed by the Earth and the energy emitted back into space. This will give us the net energy balance of the Earth, which is the excess energy that is trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  6. Determine the contribution of CO2 and other greenhouse gases to the net energy balance. This can be done by using the absorption and emission spectra of these gases, which describe how they absorb and emit energy at different wavelengths. We can then calculate the amount of energy absorbed and emitted by each gas and add them up to determine the total contribution of all the gases.
  7. Calculate the warming effect of the gases by comparing the net energy balance with and without the contribution of the gases. The difference between the two will give us the warming effect of the gases.

This is a simplified version of the process that scientists use to calculate the warming effect of greenhouse gases. In practice, the calculations are more complex and may involve using advanced computer models and data from a wide range of sources.

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Indian Traditional mathematics equations in Python Code

Indian mathematics has a rich history dating back thousands of years. Some of the key contributions of traditional Indian mathematics include the development of the decimal place-value system and the concept of zero, as well as the development of various equations, trigonometry and algebra. In this article we will attempt to reproduce these equations using Python code.

The Pythagorean theorem

The Pythagorean theorem which states that in a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (the side opposite the right angle) is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides:

a^2 + b^2 = c^2
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Formulas and equations for calculating change in climate?

There are many different ways to quantify and measure changes in climate, and different formulas and equations are used to calculate different aspects of climate change. Some of the key formulas and equations that are used to calculate changes in climate include:

  1. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law
  2. The greenhouse effect equation
  3. The equilibrium temperature equation
  4. The concentration of Greenhouse gas, or a Pollutant, or Trace gas, or Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, or Nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere, or SF6, etc.
  5. The global warming potential (GWP) of a greenhouse gas or a pollutant
  6. The carbon footprint of a product or activity
  7. The equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS)
  8. The atmospheric lifetime of a greenhouse gas, or a pollutant, or a trace gas, or CO2, or CH4, or N2O, or SF6, etc.
  9. The heat capacity of the Earthโ€™s oceans
  10. The global heat budget
  11. The carbon budget
  12. The ozone depletion potential (ODP) of a pollutant
  13. The radiative forcing of a trace gas, or CO2, or N2O, or SF6, etc.
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At current rate of climate change, by when all arctic ice will melt?

It is difficult to predict exactly when all the Arctic ice will melt as it depends on various factors such as global greenhouse gas emissions, the rate at which the Earth’s temperature increases, and the feedback effects of the melting ice. However, it is expected that the Arctic will be free of sea ice in the summer months within the next few decades.

Sea ice extent is a measure of the area of the Earth’s oceans that is covered by sea ice. Sea ice is frozen seawater that forms in the polar regions of the Earth, and it is an important component of the Earth’s climate system. Sea ice forms in the winter when the temperature of the ocean surface drops below the freezing point of seawater, and it melts in the summer when the temperature of the ocean surface rises above the freezing point.

The Arctic sea ice has been melting at an alarming rate in recent years, with the minimum summer sea ice extent (the smallest area of sea ice that is present in the Arctic during the summer) declining by 13% per decade since the late 1970s. In September 2020, the minimum summer sea ice extent reached a new record low, with only 1.44 million square miles (3.74 million square kilometers) of ice remaining. This is the equivalent of losing an area of ice the size of Texas and Oklahoma combined every year.

This graph comparing results from climate models shows that the actual downward trend of Arctic sea ice decline continues to exceed what most models predicted.Courtesy Stroeve et al., Geophysical Research Letters

Climate change is definitely affecting winds and ocean currents, and that these changes can contribute to the melting of Arctic sea ice. As the Earth’s climate warms, it can lead to changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, which can affect the strength and direction of winds and ocean currents. These changes can also have a variety of impacts on the Earth’s climate and weather patterns.

The way the change in climate is happening, it can impact the melting of Arctic sea ice is by altering the temperature difference between the equator and the poles. As the Earth’s climate warms, the temperature difference between the equator and the poles is expected to decrease, which could lead to a slowing down of the jet streams, the wind patterns that flow from west to east around the Earth at high altitudes in the mid-latitudes. This could lead to changes in weather patterns, such as more extreme heatwaves and cold snaps in some regions.

Continue reading At current rate of climate change, by when all arctic ice will melt?

How to educate kids on climate change?

Our kids are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change because they are still growing and developing, and their bodies and immune systems may not be fully equipped to cope with the stresses caused by extreme weather events and other consequences of climate change. Children may also be more vulnerable to the indirect impacts of climate change, such as food and water shortages and displacement caused by natural disasters. Hence, to educate kids on this topic of climate change is once of the key ask for their overall growth.

Overall, climate change can have significant negative impacts on the health, well-being, and future prospects of children, and it is important to take steps to mitigate and adapt to these impacts.

The world has already started responding towards climate change. And the era of asking the questions “Is it really required to educate my kid on climate change?” has long passed. Let’s look at some of the known information’s that has been learned in the recent past which are worth noting to help us direct and motivate to take this cause seriously:

  1. Youth engagement: According to a survey conducted by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 70% of young people aged 18-24 are interested in taking action to address climate change, and 59% feel a personal responsibility to do so.
  2. Climate anxiety: A study conducted by the American Psychological Association found that nearly half of young people aged 13-17 in the United States experience anxiety about climate change.
  3. Climate education: A report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) found that only 40% of schools around the world teach students about climate change.
  4. Youth activism: There has been a significant increase in youth activism related to climate change in recent years, with young people organizing protests and strikes to demand action on the issue.
  5. Impact on health: Climate change can have significant impacts on the health of young people, including increased risk of respiratory problems, heat stroke, and waterborne diseases.
  6. Impact on future opportunities: Climate change can also have negative impacts on the future opportunities of young people, such as the availability of certain types of jobs or the ability to live in certain areas.
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How the cost of solar energy changed over time?

The cost of solar power has decreased significantly over time, making it more competitive with fossil fuels in many parts of the world. According to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the cost of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has decreased by more than 80% since 2010, and it is expected to continue to decline in the coming years.

There are several factors that have contributed to the decrease in the cost of solar power, including:

  1. Technological improvements: Solar PV technology has improved significantly over the years, with more efficient cells and modules being developed. This has helped to reduce the cost of solar power by increasing the amount of electricity that can be generated from a given amount of solar panels.
  2. Economies of scale: As the demand for solar power has increased, the production of solar panels and other components has increased, leading to economies of scale and lower costs.
  3. Government incentives: Many governments around the world have implemented policies and incentives to encourage the adoption of solar power, such as subsidies, tax credits, and feed-in tariffs. These measures have helped to reduce the upfront cost of solar power for consumers and businesses.
  4. Increased competition: As the solar industry has grown, the number of companies producing solar panels and other components has increased, leading to increased competition and lower prices.

It is worth noting that the cost of solar power can vary significantly depending on the location and the specific circumstances of each project. Factors such as the quality of the solar resource, the cost of financing, and the availability of subsidies and incentives can all affect the cost of solar power.

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